“In a time of deceit telling the truth is a revolutionary act. If liberty means anything at all, it means the right to tell people what they do not want to hear.”
― George Orwell
THE LONG CON
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* MORE NOTEWORTHY POSTINGS
“When the truth is found to be lies . . .”
Okay. You know the rest!
Somebody to Love — Jefferson Airplane 1967
January 24, 2023
Corporate Fraud Investigation
the hubris of the super-rich
By Freya Berry — The Guardian
While the fraudsters are often cunning, sooner or later they get carried away.
FTX’s HQ, we now know, was not your typical one. CEO Sam Bankman-Fried ran his business from a $40m Bahamian penthouse named the Orchid, complete with Venetian plaster walls and a grand piano. The lot was nestled beside a championship golf course and a mega-yacht marina. Since Amazon doesn’t deliver to the Bahamas, private jets did the job instead.
It wasn’t your typical corporate HQ – but then, FTX is not your typical corporation. It’s bankrupt, dragged down by its own financial abuses, with its chief executive facing prison. Yet while FTX has made headlines, its tale is not as unusual as you might think.
January 22, 2023
The ‘Cryptoqueen’ Scammed Investors Out of $4 Billion
Then she boarded a plane and disappeared
By CNN Business
Ruja Ignatova strode onto the stage in a flowing burgundy ball gown adorned with black sparkles. Beams of light flashed, fireballs erupted and Alicia Keys’ “Girl on Fire” blared through the speakers at London’s Wembley Arena.
That was in June 2016, when cryptocurrency was an emerging buzzword and investors were scrambling to cash in.
“In two years, nobody will speak about Bitcoin anymore,” she said, as investors applauded and whistled.
Sixteen months later, Ignatova boarded a plane in Sofia, Bulgaria, and vanished. She hasn’t been seen since.
December 14, 2022
FTX and Cryptocurrency Frauds
The largest Ponzi scheme in history
By Brian Schwartz and Chelsey Cox — NBC News
- The Senate Banking hearing is set to take place just one day after new FTX CEO John J. Ray testified in front of the House Financial Services Committee.
- FTX founder Sam Bankman-Fried was charged by federal prosecutors in the Southern District of New York for a wide variety of crimes including wire fraud, securities fraud and violating campaign finance regulations.
December 14, 2022
Biggest Financial Frauds
A brief history of financial skullduggery
By Julian Mark and Rachel Lerman — The Washington Post
From Charles Ponzi to Bernie Madoff!
The Confidence Game
Why we fall for it every time
By Maria Konnikova
Think you can’t get conned? Think again . . .
A compelling investigation into the minds, motives, and methods of con artists—and the people who fall for their cons over and over again.
From multimillion-dollar Ponzi schemes to small-time frauds, Konnikova pulls together a selection of fascinating stories to demonstrate what all cons share in common, drawing on scientific, dramatic, and psychological perspectives. Insightful and gripping, the book brings readers into the world of the con, examining the relationship between artist and victim. The Confidence Game asks not only why we believe con artists, but also examines the very act of believing and how our sense of truth can be manipulated by those around us.
December 22, 2022
The Difference Between Lies and Bullshit
By Aditya Chakrabortty — The Guardian
We have suffered both. Some never speak the truth because they don’t know or care about it. Others know the truth but lie anyway
April 18, 2019
Why Do We Believe Liars?
By F. Diane Barth — NBC News
Denying reality, or not crediting something we know is true, is a way to unconsciously protect ourselves from the pain of an untruth.
It is not unusual for people to believe someone, even when they have substantial proof that the are being lied to. Why do we continue to believe someone, even when we have rational and substantial evidence that they are lying to us?
With denial we can reassure ourselves that everything is okay, even when it is not. The reassurance can give a frightened psyche time and space to work on possible solutions, which is harder to do when you are in a state of panic, anxiety or dread.
The Fascination of Serial Killers & True Crime Stories
By Dr. Tarra Bates-Duford – Your Tango
Most serial killers appeared quite charming, intelligent, attractive, and engaging.
Often, serial killers are able to blend in with everyone else. Some of them can be so charismatic that we secretly desire to be just like them — before we realize they are serial killers.
People gravitate to them, and they are usually the life of the party.
The Hidden History of the Billionaires Behind the Rise of the Radical Right
By Jane Mayer
Donald Trump’s election victory was a huge victory for the billionaires who have been pouring money into the American political system.
- Why is America living in an age of profound and widening economic inequality?
- Why have even modest attempts to address climate change been defeated again and again?
- Why do hedge-fund billionaires pay a far lower tax rate than middle-class workers?
In a riveting and indelible feat of reporting, Jane Mayer illuminates the history of an elite cadre of plutocrats—headed by the Kochs, the Scaifes, the Olins, and the Bradleys—who have bankrolled a systematic plan to fundamentally alter the American political system.
The Petroleum Papers
Inside the Far-Right Conspiracy to Cover Up Climate Change
By Geoff Dembicki
Burning fossil fuels will cause catastrophic global warming: this is what top American oil executives were told by scientists in 1959. But they ignored that warning.
Instead, they developed one of the biggest, most polluting oil sources in the world—the oil sands in Alberta, Canada. As investigative journalist Geoff Dembicki reveals in this explosive book, the decades-long conspiracy to keep the oil sands flowing into the U.S. would turn out to be one of the biggest reasons for the world’s failure to stop the climate crisis.
Exxon’s Climate Crisis Predictions
have increased its legal peril
By Oliver Milman — The Guardian
Further revelations of the extent of Exxon’s historical knowledge of the unfolding climate crisis may have deepened the legal peril faced by the oil giant, with several US states suing the company for alleged deception, claiming their cases have now been strengthened.
Why We Need New Stories on Climate
‘If you win the popular imagination, you change the game’
By Rebecca Solnit — The Guardian
So much is happening, both wonderful and terrible – and it matters how we tell it. We can’t erase the bad news, but to ignore the good is the route to indifference or despair.
Every crisis is in part a storytelling crisis. This is as true of climate chaos as anything else. We are hemmed in by stories that prevent us from seeing, or believing in, or acting on the possibilities for change. Some are habits of mind, some are industry propaganda. Sometimes, the situation has changed but the stories haven’t, and people follow the old versions, like outdated maps, into dead ends.
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- Anna Sorokin, A Criminal in Nice Shoes
- My Friend Anna
- How Con-Artist Anna Sorokin Ripped Off the New York Elite
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- Socialite Who Charmed NATO Was A Russian Spy
Low Sense of Personal Control
Increases People’s Affinity for
Tighter, Rules-Based Culture
By Jim Silwa — Neuroscience News
People who feel a lack of personal control in their lives are more likely to prefer a culture that imposes order, according to research published by the American Psychological Association. These “tighter” cultures, in turn, perpetuate their existence by reducing individuals’ sense of personal control and increasing their sense of collective control.
“Strong social norms—a core feature of tight cultures—help people view the world as simple and coherent. As strong norms guide people’s behaviors and allow them to predict others’ behaviors, they can provide a significant source of order and predictability in everyday social life,” said lead author Anyi Ma, PhD, of Tulane University.
January 12, 2023
Bat-People on the Moon
what a famed 1835 hoax reveals about misinformation today
By Kirsty B. Carter — aeon
While the social media age may allow misinformation to spread like a highly contagious virus, ‘fake news’ is, of course, as old as the news itself. And, as The Great Moon Hoax chronicles, the Moon proved fertile ground for misinformation long before the persistent conspiracy theory that the Apollo landings were faked. In this short, the Australian journalist Kirsty B. Carter interviews the US writer Matthew Goodman who explains how a series of stories, originally intended as satire and published in 1835 in the New York paper The Sun, convinced millions that the Moon was teeming with life – including, infamously, a race of bat-people.
Watch the video!
Conformity, Complicity, and the Science of Why We Make Bad Decisions
By Tod Rose
Much of our thinking is informed by false assumptions—making us dangerously mistrustful as a society and needlessly unhappy as individuals.
The desire to fit in is one of the most powerful, least understood forces in society.
As human beings, we continually act against our own best interests because our brains misunderstand what others believe. A complicated set of illusions driven by conformity bias distorts how we see the world around us.
The Knowledge Illusion
Why We Never Think Alone
We all think we know more than we actually do.
Humans have built hugely complex societies and technologies, but most of us don’t even know how a pen or a toilet works. How have we achieved so much despite understanding so little? Cognitive scientists Steven Sloman and Philip Fernbach argue that we survive and thrive despite our mental shortcomings because we live in a rich community of knowledge. The key to our intelligence lies in the people and things around us. We’re constantly drawing on information and expertise stored outside our heads: in our bodies, our environment, our possessions, and the community with which we interact—and usually we don’t even realize we’re doing it.
The human mind is both brilliant and pathetic. We have mastered fire, created democratic institutions, stood on the moon, and sequenced our genome. And yet each of us is error prone, sometimes irrational, and often ignorant. The fundamentally communal nature of intelligence and knowledge explains why we often assume we know more than we really do, why political opinions and false beliefs are so hard to change, and why individual-oriented approaches to education and management frequently fail. But our collaborative minds also enable us to do amazing things. The Knowledge Illusion contends that true genius can be found in the ways we create intelligence using the community around us.
Doctor Ice Pick
By Claire Prentice
A haunting and true short story of the lobotomist who cut a brutal swathe through the lives of thousands of vulnerable Americans.
In July 1952, Dr. Walter Freeman arrived at the gates of a West Virginia asylum. In his medical bag he carried two metal picks and a surgical hammer. He had invented a “cheap, easy” ten-minute lobotomy. The press described it as a miracle cure, a new frontier in psychosurgery.
That summer, in just twelve days, Freeman lobotomized 228 men, women, and children in West Virginia’s public mental hospitals. His blitzkrieg of brain surgery became known as “Operation Ice Pick,” named after the tools he wielded.
To some, the doctor was a hero, solving the crisis facing the nation’s underfunded and overcrowded psychiatric institutions. But many who watched him operate saw a dangerous risk-taker, a showman and a charlatan. This is the true story of a scientific pioneer whose misguided quest created one of the biggest tragedies in American medical history.
why we believe conspiracy theories
By Rob Brotherton
We’re all conspiracy theorists. Some of us just hide it better than others.
Conspiracy theorists do not wear tin-foil hats (for the most part). They are not just a few kooks lurking on the paranoid fringes of society with bizarre ideas about shape-shifting reptilian aliens running society in secret. They walk among us. They are us.
Why Idiots Think They’re Smart
Dunning On The Dunning–Kruger Effect
By Tom Hale — IFLSCIENCE
“I know that I am intelligent because I know that I know nothing,” a wise guy once said.
Have you ever noticed that the person with the least amount of knowledge on a subject is often the most confident to blast you with their opinion about it?
This is a well-known experience that can perhaps be explained by the Dunning-Kruger effect, a cognitive bias whereby people with limited ability in a given field tend to greatly overestimate their own competence. The less ability, the more they tend to overestimate their competence.
Socially Isolated People Have Differently Wired Brains
and poorer cognition
By Barbara Jacquelyn Sahakian, Christelle Langley, Chun Shen, and Jianfeng Feng — Neuroscience News
Summary: Social isolation is linked to alterations in brain structure and cognitive deficits. Additionally, social isolation can increase the risk of developing dementia as a person ages.
Why do we get a buzz from being in large groups at festivals, jubilees and other public events? According to the social brain hypothesis, it’s because the human brain specifically evolved to support social interactions. Studies have shown that belonging to a group can lead to improved well-being and increased satisfaction with life.
Unfortunately though, many people are lonely or socially isolated.
How Minds Change
The Surprising science of belief, opinion and peruasion
By David McRaney
A brain-bending investigation of why some people never change their minds—and others do in an instant.
What made a prominent conspiracy-theorist YouTuber finally see that 9/11 was not a hoax? How do voter opinions shift from neutral to resolute? Can widespread social change only take place when a generation dies out? From one of our greatest thinkers on reasoning, HOW MINDS CHANGE is a book about the science, and the experience, of transformation.
The Neuroscience of Optical Illusions
“Reality” is constructed by your brain. Here’s what that means, and why it matters.
By Brian Resnick — Vox
“It’s really important to understand we’re not seeing reality,” says neuroscientist Patrick Cavanagh, a research professor at Dartmouth College and a senior fellow at Glendon College in Canada. “We’re seeing a story that’s being created for us.”
The Neural Architecture of Intelligence
Finding solutions to the diverse problems we encounter in life
By Marianna Pogosyan Ph.D. — Psychology Today
The human brain is home to around 100 billion neurons. That’s roughly the number of stars the Milky Way harbors. Compared to most stars that like to drift through the galaxy by their lonesome selves, our neurons are champion extroverts. They like to make connections; 10^15 of them. Thanks to the miraculous chemical and electrical choreography that our networking neurons stage on any ordinary day, we are able to write love letters, calculate gratuities, and cure diseases.
- General intelligence is our general problem-solving aptitude.
- Intelligence doesn’t reside in one particular region or network of the brain.
- Brain plasticity is central to general intelligence.
- General intelligence reflects individual differences in the efficiency and flexibility of brain networks.
We Are Fictional Characters
of Our Own Creation
By Nick Chater — BIG Think
We imagine and debate the inner lives of literary characters, knowing there can be no truth about their real motives or beliefs. Could our own inner lives also be works of fiction?
- Data suggests that the stories we tell ourselves about our motives, beliefs, and values are not merely unreliable but entirely fictitious.
- Our brains are such master storytellers that they even are able to justify choices that we never made.
- Introspection is not some strange inner perception; it is the human imagination turned upon itself.
Theory of Mind
what chess and drug dealers can teach you about manipulation
By Jonny Thomson — BigThink
Theory of mind is the ability we all have to see things from another’s point of view. It’s essential in all our interactions.
Thinking ahead is one hallmark of intelligence. Without it, we’re simply slaves to our instincts and reflexes. The role of forward thinking when dealing with others is addressed in a recent study out of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine. It shows just how far ahead we think when we interact with — and manipulate — other people.
How Manipulators & Sociopaths Trick People
into doing anything they want
By Donna Andersen — Your Tango
You, too, may have been convinced to comply with outrageous demands, doing things that you knew were wrong.
The answer lies in the essence of our humanity — the power of our minds and social instincts.
Our realities are strongly influenced by our minds. How we perceive the world, the possibilities we envision, and what we experience can all be created by what we believe.
They Wanted Something for Nothing
The Many Cons of The Yellow Kid
By Dean Jobb — CrimeReads
He was America’s “greatest con man,” self-proclaimed and widely celebrated. But what was the real story of Joseph Weil?
Joseph Weil — most people knew him only by his nickname, the “Yellow Kid” — looked like a wealthy, respectable citizen. The mustache of his neatly trimmed, reddish beard turned up slightly at each end, mimicking the mischievous smile below. The reporters who covered Chicago’s busy criminal courts were always glad to see him, and over drinks he regaled them with stories of his latest confidence tricks.
The Believing Brain
From ghosts and gods to politics and conspiracies
By Michael Shermer
How we construct beliefs and reinforce them as truths.
In this work synthesizing thirty years of research, psychologist, historian of science, and the world’s best-known skeptic Michael Shermer upends the traditional thinking about how humans form beliefs about the world.
Simply put, beliefs come first and explanations for beliefs follow.
Why Facts Don’t Change Minds
cognitive biases and brain biology
By Keith M. Bellizzi – The Conversation
Our worldview forms during childhood as a result of our socialization within a particular cultural context. Our views get reinforced over time by the social groups we keep, the media we consume, and even the way in which our brains are wired. Challenging our worldviews with facts can feel like an attack on our personal identities and can often result in hardening our positions. Researchers assess how we can open our minds and explore facts that may go against our personal worldviews.
People form opinions based on emotions, such as fear, contempt and anger, rather than relying on facts. New facts often do not change people’s minds.
The Third Man Factor
Surviving the Impossible
By John Geiger
An extraordinary account of how people at the very edge of death often sense an unseen presence beside them who encourages them to make one final effort to survive.
This incorporeal being offers a feeling of hope, protection, and guidance, and leaves the person convinced he or she is not alone. There is a name for this phenomenon: it’s called the Third Man Factor.
“If you heave an egg out of a Pullman car window anywhere in the United States you are likely to hit a fundamentalist.”
— H.L. Mencken,1927
Malcolm Nance on the Danger of Conspiracy Theories
By Isaac Chotiner — The New Yorker
The former naval intelligence officer Malcolm Nance discusses his fears about the Trump Presidency and whether he believes Trump and members of his circle are foreign agents.
“You are watching a strategic plan that’s being executed by Russia. None of this is piecemeal; none of this is small-time—it is a long ball game.”
“Today, science reporting in the American press is freer of humbug and misinformation than ever before in history.”
— Martin Gardner, 1952
Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science
The curious theories of modern pseudoscientists
By Martin Gardner
This witty and engaging book examines the various fads, fallacies, strange cults, and curious panaceas which at one time or another have masqueraded as science. Not just a collection of anecdotes but a fair, reasoned appraisal of eccentric theory, it is unique in recognizing the scientific, philosophic, and sociological-psychological implications of the wave of pseudoscientific theories which periodically besets the world.
Here you will find discussions of hollow-earth fanatics like Symmes; Velikovsky and wandering planets; Hörbiger, Bellamy, and the theory of multiple moons; Charles Fort and the Fortean Society; dowsing and the other strange methods for finding water, ores, and oil. Also covered are such topics as naturopathy, iridiagnosis, zone therapy, food fads; Wilhelm Reich and orgone sex energy; L. Ron Hubbard and Dianetics; A. Korzybski and General Semantics. A new examination of Bridey Murphy is included in this edition, along with a new section on bibliographic reference material.
Why Some People Are More Prone to Believing Conspiracy Theories
a neuroscientist explains it
By Francesca Benson — IFLSCIENCE!
Recently, droves of people have hurled themselves headfirst into the rabbit hole of conspiracy theories. While some of the more outlandish theories make for a fun read, many take them completely seriously, declaring that they see a sinister underbelly to everyday life.
Neuroscientist Shannon Odell explains why in this video from Inverse.
Conspiracy Theories Are a Mental Health Crisis
The complex relationship between mental health, conspiracy theories, and disinformation that no one’s talking about.
By Rebecca Ruiz — Mashable
Every day, people who spend time online face a deluge of conspiracy theories, misinformation, and disinformation. Plenty of them move along, clicking past outlandish or false content that’s designed to lure them in. Some, however, become ensnared for reasons experts don’t fully understand. People quickly slip into dark corners of the internet and find a community of believers, or even zealots, who swear they’ve discovered hidden truths and forbidden knowledge.
How America Went Haywire: A 500-Year History
By Kurt Andersen
How did we get here?
This post-factual, “fake news” moment we’re all living through is not something new, but rather the ultimate expression of our national character. America was founded by wishful dreamers, magical thinkers, and true believers, by hucksters and their suckers. Fantasy is deeply embedded in our DNA.
the history of america’s irrationality
By Kurt Andersen
How can we make sense of America’s current “post-factual,” “post-truth,” “fake news” moment? By looking to America’s past. All the way back. To the wishful dreams and make-believe fears of the country’s first settlers, the madness of the Salem witch trials, the fantasies of Hollywood, the anything-goes 1960s, the gatekeeper-free internet, the profusion of reality TV….all the way up to and most especially including President Donald Trump.
America’s Departure from Reality
The Cultural Factors
By Kurt Andersen
Kurt Andersen’s cover story “How America Lost Its Mind” argues that “being American means we can believe anything we want.” This is due to a combination of the new-age mentality born out of the 1960s that encouraged Americans to find their own truth and the internet age, which has allowed us to create communities that reinforce our beliefs. According to Andersen, the perfect manifestation of America’s journey away from reality is the election of Donald Trump.
The Unmaking of America: A Recent History
By Kurt Andersen
During the twentieth century, America managed to make its economic and social systems both more and more fair and more and more prosperous. A huge, secure, and contented middle class emerged. All boats rose together. But then the New Deal gave way to the Raw Deal. Beginning in the early 1970s, by means of a long war conceived of and executed by a confederacy of big business CEOs, the superrich, and right-wing zealots, the rules and norms that made the American middle class possible were undermined and dismantled. The clock was turned back on a century of economic progress, making greed good, workers powerless, and the market all-powerful while weaponizing nostalgia, lifting up an oligarchy that served only its own interests, and leaving the huge majority of Americans with dwindling economic prospects and hope.
the unmaking of america
By Kurt Andersen
While the last four years in America have certainly felt crazy and chaotic, the best-selling author of the recent book, “Evil Geniuses: The Unmaking of America: A Recent History,” Kurt Andersen, contends that the insanity actually started much earlier, beginning back in the 1970s.
the unmaking of america
By Kurt Andersen — Amanpour and Company
As the pandemic lays bare social, legal, racial and financial injustice in America, it is vital to examine how the system got its start. Kurt Andersen is a best-selling author and journalist whose latest book examines the origins of America’s hyper-capitalism. He speaks with Walter Isaacson about the genesis and propagation of the system–and the need to take a step back.
By Kurt Andersen
With his fantastic new book, Evil Geniuses: The Unmaking of America (Random House, Kurt Andersen explores how rich conservatives responded to the 1960s by pushing America on a pro-business trajectory that has led to record income inequality and a nation unequipped to handle a pandemic. We get into the one-two punch of this book and Kurt’s previous history of America, Fantasyland, the over-exaggeration of individualism and how puts us on the precipice of disaster, post-’80s cultural stasis and nostalgia, the way “if it feels good, do it” led to “profits over all”, the long-term impact of the Occupy movement, and how his kids give him optimism that this can all be fixed.
“Vincit Omnia Veritas”
Truth Conquers All Things
a compendium of history’s greatest mysteries
and more recent cover-ups
By Jamie King
- Where did the Coronavirus outbreak originate and was the pandemic predicted?
- Did aliens help to build the Sphinx and the Great Pyramid of Giza, and what were they trying to tell us?
- Is the food industry colluding to make us addicted to sugar?
Prepare yourself for some startling revelations on these topics and many more in this updated and expanded compendium of the world’s scariest and strangest conspiracy theories.
How a Culture of Conspiracy Keeps America Complacent
By Sarah Kendzior
Conspiracy theories are on the rise because officials refuse to enforce accountability for real conspiracies. Uncritical faith in broken institutions is as dangerous as false narratives peddled by propagandists.
The truth may hurt—but the lies will kill us.
A Culture of Conspiracy
Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America
By Michael Barkun
American society has changed dramatically since A Culture of Conspiracy was first published in 2001. In this revised and expanded edition, Michael Barkun delves deeper into America’s conspiracy sub-culture, exploring the rise of 9/11 conspiracy theories, the “birther” controversy surrounding Barack Obama’s American citizenship, and how the conspiracy landscape has changed with the rise of the Internet and other new media.
What do UFO believers, Christian millennialists, and right-wing conspiracy theorists have in common?
True Stories of Grifters, Killers, Rebels and Crooks
By Patrick Radden Keefe
Patrick Radden Keefe has garnered prizes ranging from the National Magazine Award to the Orwell Prize to the National Book Critics Circle Award for his meticulously-reported, hypnotically-engaging work on the many ways people behave badly. Rogues brings together a dozen of his most celebrated articles from The New Yorker. As Keefe says in his preface “They reflect on some of my abiding preoccupations: crime and corruption, secrets and lies, the permeable membrane separating licit and illicit worlds, the bonds of family, the power of denial.”
The True Believer
thoughts on the nature of mass movements
By Eric Hoffer
“Its theme is political fanaticism, with which it deals severely and brilliantly.” — The New Yorker
A stevedore on the San Francisco docks in the 1940s, Eric Hoffer wrote philosophical treatises in his spare time while living in the railroad yards. The True Believer—the first and most famous of his books—was made into a bestseller when President Eisenhower cited it during one of the earliest television press conferences.
Called a “brilliant and original inquiry” and “a genuine contribution to our social thought” by Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., this landmark in the field of social psychology is completely relevant and essential for understanding the world today as it delivers a visionary, highly provocative look into the mind of the fanatic and a penetrating study of how an individual becomes one.
Moonwalking with Einstein
The art and science of remembering everything
By Joshua Foer
The blockbuster phenomenon that charts an amazing journey of the mind while revolutionizing our concept of memory.
Moonwalking with Einstein recounts Joshua Foer’s yearlong quest to improve his memory under the tutelage of top “mental athletes.” He draws on cutting-edge research, a surprising cultural history of remembering, and venerable tricks of the mentalist’s trade to transform our understanding of human memory. From the United States Memory Championship to deep within the author’s own mind, this is an electrifying work of journalism that reminds us that, in every way that matters:
We are the sum of our memories.
Reading Transforms Us
By Marianna Pogosyan Ph.D. — Psychology Today
How books can help us develop our key emotional and cognitive skills.
Why Your Brain Loves Good Storytelling
By Scott Myers
Your Protagonist, must resonate with a reader.
What that boils down to is creating a sense of empathy on the part of the reader.